# String Operators - Concatenation¶

Strings can be appended to each other which creates a new string using the + operator . This is also called concatenation.

String start = "Happy Birthday";
String name = "Jose";
String final = start + " " + name;


Note that spaces are not added between strings automatically. If you want a space between two strings then add one.

You can even add other items to a string using the + operator. The other item will be converted to a string using the toString operator if it is an object and then appended to the current string. All objects inherit a toString method that returns a string representation of the object. If you are appending number to a string it will be converted to a string first before being appended. What do you think the following will print?

String message = "12" + 4 + 3;
System.out.println(message);


Since the same operators are processed from left to right this will print 1243. First 4 will be turned into a string and appended to 12 and then 3 will be turned into a string and appended to 124. If you want the addition to take place before the numbers are turned into a string what should you do?